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Positive Reinforcement Training

The Power of Love & Rewards

Little puppy excitedly waits for a treat

Table of Contents


Laying the Foundation

Have you ever wondered why your dog seems to understand ‘treat’ better than ‘no’? Imagine if every time your dog did something right, they got a reward. Wouldn’t that make training a lot more fun for them? Welcome to the world of positive reinforcement training.


If you’re looking for a humane and effective way to train your dog, you might want to consider positive reinforcement training. This is a method that rewards your dog for doing what you want, rather than punishing them for doing what you don’t want.


Positive reinforcement training can help you build a strong bond with your dog, improve their behavior, and enhance their well-being. In this article, we’ll explain what positive reinforcement training is, how it works, why it’s beneficial, and how you can use it with your dog. We’ll also share some of our firsthand experiences and successes using this method with our own dogs.


The Science Behind Positive Reinforcement

Rooted in the science of learning and behavior, positive reinforcement training hinges on the concept of operant conditioning 1 2 3. Unfortunately, this form of learning is influenced by consequences controlling behavior 1 2 3.. A key element of operant conditioning, positive reinforcement involves introducing a rewarding stimulus to increase the likelihood of a repeated behavior.


Applying positive reinforcement in dog training means rewarding behaviors you want to see more often 1 4 5 6. This principle is like how we go to work for a paycheck, enjoy our favorite foods for their taste, or spend time with friends for the happiness it brings.


In dog training, positive reinforcement can vary from treats and favorite toys to praise and affection. The crux is to reward your dog immediately after they exhibit the desired behavior, creating a positive association that encourages repetition.


Contrasting sharply with punishment-based training, which uses negative consequences to discourage unwanted behaviors, positive reinforcement offers a more humane and effective approach 1 4 5 6.. While punishment may temporarily halt undesirable behavior, it often leads to fear, anxiety, and aggression 1 4 5 6.. It also fails to guide the dog on preferred behaviors.


In contrast, positive reinforcement fosters trust and understanding, transforming training into an enjoyable and enriching experience for both you and your dog. Centered on rewards rather than punishment, it turns training sessions into something your dog eagerly anticipates, enhancing both productivity and enjoyment.


Debunking Common Myths About Positive Reinforcement Training

Let's debunk some widespread myths about positive reinforcement training, shedding light on the realities to enhance your understanding and approach to dog training.

Myth 1: 

Positive reinforcement training is just bribery.Reality: Utilizing treats in training can effectively reinforce desired behaviors. This training method emphasizes rewarding the behaviors you want from your dog, rather than focusing on punishment. Over time, dogs can learn to respond to other forms of positive reinforcement, like verbal praise, favorite toys, and eye contact. 12

Myth 2: 

Positive reinforcement training doesn’t work without treats.Reality: Once a behavior is learned and consistently performed on cue, then the continuous treats become unnecessary. The reward, initially a treat, gradually becomes less crucial as your dog perfects demonstrating the behavior. Rewards can vary and include anything your dog enjoys, such as physical affection or verbal praise. 3 4

Myth 3: 

Positive reinforcement training is permissive.Reality: This training approach is not about indulgence. It involves strategic planning and precision, focusing on reinforcing desired behaviors in a deliberate manner. 5 6

Myth 4: 

Positive reinforcement training only works with small/happy/regular dogs, not tough/large/obstinate/stubborn dogs.Reality: Positive reinforcement is a cornerstone in training a wide range of animals, including exotic and marine mammals. Its effectiveness crosses all dog breeds and temperaments, regardless of size or perceived stubbornness. 7 8

Myth 5: 

Positive reinforcement isn’t suitable for working, hunting, or show dogs.Reality: This method is highly effective for all dog types, including working, hunting, and show dogs. It fosters a strong bond between handler and dog, which is essential in these specialized fields. 9

These myths often arise from a lack of understanding about what positive reinforcement training entails and its effectiveness. In truth, it's a scientifically supported, humane, and effective method for training dogs across various contexts.

The Drawbacks of Punishment-Based Training

Punishment-based training, often termed aversive training, has been linked to increased aggression in dogs. This is analogous to the way spanking is associated with aggressive responses in human children. The employment of aversive and punitive methods in training correlates with a rise in aggression and biting in dogs, due to the stress and anxiety these methods induce1 2 3 4


A pivotal study in the Journal of Applied Animal Behavior concluded that confrontational methods, such as striking dogs, intimidating them with force, and using restraint techniques like the ‘alpha roll,’ not only fail to effectively correct behavior but also significantly increase the risk of fear and aggression in dogs5 6 7 8.

Further supporting this, research from the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania revealed that punishing techniques in dog training often heighten aggression. Such methods pose risks to both the physical and mental well-being of dogs.

In stark contrast, positive reinforcement training offers a more humane and effective approach. It fosters a bond of trust and understanding between you and your dog, transforming training into a positive and mutually enjoyable experience. Based on rewards rather than punishment, it turns training sessions into something your dog eagerly anticipates, enhancing both productivity and enjoyment 10 11 12 13.

These findings emphasize the significance of adopting positive reinforcement methods in dog training. These methods not only prove more effective but also foster a healthier, more positive relationship between dogs and their owners.

The Benefits of Positive Reinforcement

Strengthens the Bond Between You and Your Dog

Positive reinforcement training, grounded in mutual respect and understanding, significantly strengthens the bond between you and your dog. It emphasizes communication over force. My experience with my first rescue, who had behavioral issues from past negative reinforcement, illustrates this. Through consistent positive reinforcement, he formed a strong bond with me, becoming protective and loyal.

Similarly, Pebbles, rescued from a challenging situation, quickly bonded with me, sensing the difference in treatment. These experiences underscore how positive reinforcement can transform behavior and build trust.

Improves Mental Stimulation

This training approach provides essential mental stimulation, vital for cognitive development in dogs. Dogs of all ages, much like humans, thrive on learning. Pebbles, my 10-year-old Staffordshire Bull Terrier, exemplifies this. Despite her age, she’s quick to learn and visibly delighted by mastering new tricks. This not only keeps her mentally engaged but also brings her immense joy, debunking the myth that old dogs can't learn new tricks.

Encourages Good Behavior

A key advantage of positive reinforcement is its effectiveness in promoting good behavior. Dogs quickly learn that certain actions lead to rewards, making them more likely to repeat these actions. This principle is fundamental in various training contexts. Over time, as desired behaviors become habitual, the reliance on physical treats can be reduced, with praise or petting becoming equally reinforcing.

Reduces Fear and Anxiety

Positive reinforcement is instrumental in reducing fear and anxiety in dogs. By associating actions or environments with positive experiences, it alleviates stress and fosters a sense of security. This approach is particularly crucial for rescue dogs, who often carry the burden of past traumas. A training method focused on positive reinforcement rather than punishment builds trust and strengthens the bond between the dog and its owner.

Incorporating positive reinforcement in dog training not only enhances learning but also fosters a healthier, more trusting relationship. It’s an approach that significantly benefits the emotional well-being of our canine companions, making it an essential aspect of effective training.

Black lab high fiving a human hand

Top Five Essential Dog Commands and How to Teach Them

Training your dog is a crucial aspect of responsible pet ownership. Here, we outline five fundamental commands that are essential for every dog, along with a step-by-step guide to teach them using positive reinforcement techniques:


Vital for your dog's safety, this command helps in calling them back to you. Start by standing a short distance away. Call their name followed by “come.” When they obey, reward them with a treat or praise.


Often the first command taught, “sit” is a fundamental skill. To teach it, hold a treat near your dog’s nose, then slowly raise your hand. This action will naturally make them sit. As they do, say “sit,” then reward them with the treat and affection.


Like “sit,” start with a treat near your dog’s nose, then lower your hand to the floor. As they follow the treat and lie down, say “down,” then reward them with the treat and affection.


This command builds on the “sit” command. After asking your dog to “sit,” hold your palm out and say “stay.” Take a few steps back. If they remain seated, return to reward them with a treat and affection.

Leave it: 

Useful in avoiding distractions or dangers during walks. Hold a treat in each hand. Show them one closed fist with a treat inside and say, “leave it.” When they stop trying to get the treat, reward them with the treat from your other hand.

Remember, training requires patience and consistency. Always acknowledge and reward your dog's progress, even if it's small.


Golden Lab lays patiently in a green field

Overcoming Challenges in Positive Reinforcement Dog Training

Positive reinforcement is a highly effective tool for shaping your dog’s behavior, but it's not without its challenges. Here are three common hurdles and strategies to overcome them:

Treat Dependency: 

Dogs may become overly dependent on treats. This can result in less responsiveness when treats aren’t available. To address this, gradually reduce the frequency of treats once your dog has mastered a command. Instead, use other forms of positive reinforcement like praise, petting, or playtime 1.

Maintaining Focus: 

Dogs can lose focus during extended training sessions. To keep them engaged, opt for short, frequent sessions spread throughout the day rather than one lengthy session. Introduce variety in the training exercises to keep their interest alive 1.

Understanding Your Dog’s Behavior: 

Figuring out why a dog isn’t responding to training can be challenging, especially with anxious, stressed, or previously negatively trained dogs. In such cases, patience is crucial. Endeavor to understand your dog’s behavior and triggers. If needed, seek advice from a professional dog trainer who specializes in positive reinforcement techniques. They can offer tailored guidance based on your dog’s unique needs and behavior 2 .

Successful dog training hinges on understanding and adapting to your dog's unique needs. Every small step forward is a victory worth recognizing. Celebrate these moments of progress, as they are the building blocks of a well-trained, happy canine companion.


As we delve into the aspects and techniques of the world of positive reinforcement dog training, we uncover the benefits this approach brings. Drawing from years of personal experience, rather than formal training, I've witnessed how these methods enhance the bond between dogs and their owners.

Remember, every dog's journey is unique. The insights here are based on my experiences, but they might not apply to every situation. If you face challenges or have concerns with your dog's behavior, I recommend consulting professional trainers or your veterinarian for specialized advice.

Embrace this journey with patience and joy. It's about more than just training; it's about building a deeper, harmonious bond with your dog. The path to a well-trained dog also leads to a more connected and joyful life together.

🐾 With heartfelt love, Melissa & Pebbles 🐾


If you've found this guide helpful and are passionate about ensuring a happy, healthy life for your pet, check out our other blog articles!


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